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Literature linking FM to Weight and Diabetes 
 

  (1)   Doron Y, Peleg R, Peleg A, Neumann L, Buskila D. The clinical and economic burden of fibromyalgia compared with diabetes mellitus and hypertension among Bedouin women in the Negev. Fam Pract 2004; 21(4):415-419.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common idiopathic chronic, widespread pain syndrome with tenderness in anatomically defined tender points. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to describe and characterize the economic and daily work burden of FM compared with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2001 in a primary care clinic, the Kuseife clinic of the Clalit Health Services. Data for the three study groups were obtained from the computerized database of the Kuseife clinic and the Negev District, Israel. The study group included 102 FM patients. The control groups included 102 diabetes patients and 103 patients with hypertension. RESULTS: Hospitalization and hospital day care services were the main expenses incurred by patients in this study. There were no differences among the study groups in any cost parameter examined except for the cost of diagnostic tests (P < 0.01), which was less for FM patients. FM patients were referred to specialists and diagnostic procedures more frequently than the control groups. No statistical difference was found in the total number of clinic visits, but FM patients visited physicians more frequently and visited nurses less frequently than patients in the other two groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: FM patients consume health care resources to a similar extent to patients with other chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, but the latter usually receive much more attention from the health care system. Greater awareness of this disorder can improve management and facilitate planning of health care resources, thus improving quality of care.

  (2)   Hooper MM, Stellato TA, Hallowell PT, Seitz BA, Moskowitz RW. Musculoskeletal findings in obese subjects before and after weight loss following bariatric surgery. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006; .
Abstract: Objective:To determine the point prevalence of painful musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in obese subjects before and after weight loss following bariatric surgery.Design:Longitudinal, interventional, unblended.Subjects:Forty-eight obese subjects (47 women, one man, mean age 44+/-9 years; mean body mass index (BMI) 51+/-8 kg/m(2)) recruited from an academic medical center bariatric surgery program.Measurements:Comorbid medical conditions; MSK findings; BMI; Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for pain, stiffness and function; and SF-36((R)) for quality of life.Methods:Consecutive subjects were recruited from the University Hospitals of Cleveland Bariatric Surgery Program. Musculoskeletal signs and symptoms and non-MSK comorbid conditions were documented at baseline and at follow-up. Subjects completed the SF-36((R)) and the WOMAC questionnaires. Analyses were carried out for each MSK site, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and for the cumulative effect on the spine, upper and lower extremities. The impact of change in comorbid medical conditions, BMI, physical and mental health domains of the SF-36((R)) on the WOMAC pain subscale score was evaluated. SF-36((R)) outcomes were compared to normal published controls.Results:Forty-eight subjects were available for baseline and a follow-up assessment 6-12 months after gastric bypass surgery. They lost an average of 41+/-15 kg and the mean BMI decreased from 51+/-8 to 36+/-7 kg/m(2). Baseline comorbid medical conditions were present in 96% before surgery and 23% after weight loss. There was an increased prevalence of painful MSK conditions at baseline compared to general population frequencies. Musculoskeletal complaints had been present in 100% of obese subjects before, and 23% after weight loss. The greatest improvements occurred in the cervical and lumbar spine, the foot and in FMS (decreased by 90, 83, 83 and 92%, respectively). Seventy-nine percent had upper extremity MSK conditions before and 40% after weight loss. Before surgery, 100% had lower extremity MSK conditions and only 37% did after weight loss. The WOMAC subscale and composite scores all improved significantly, as did the SF-36((R)). Change in BMI was the main factor impacting the WOMAC pain score.Conclusion:There was a higher frequency of multiple MSK complaints, including non-weight-bearing sites compared to historical controls, before surgery, which decreased significantly at most sites following weight loss and physical activity. These benefits may improve further, as weight loss may continue for up to 24 months. The benefits seen with weight loss indicate that prevention and treatment of obesity can improve MSK health and function.

  (3)   Shapiro JR, Anderson DA, noff-Burg S. A pilot study of the effects of behavioral weight loss treatment on fibromyalgia symptoms. J Psychosom Res 2005; 59(5):275-282.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have found a relation between weight loss and pain severity in various chronic pain populations. However, there has been little research examining the relation between body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and FMS symptoms and to determine if FMS symptoms would decrease following weight loss. METHODS: Overweight and obese women participated in a 20-week behavioral weight loss treatment. RESULTS: Participants, on average, lost 9.2 lbs (4.4% of their initial weight), and there were significant pre-postimprovements on several outcome measures. Although weight was not significantly related to pain at baseline, weight loss significantly predicted a reduction in FMS, pain interference, body satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL). CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that behavioral weight loss treatment could be included in the treatment for overweight/obese women with FMS.

  (4)   Tishler M, Smorodin T, Vazina-Amit M, Ramot Y, Koffler M, Fishel B. Fibromyalgia in diabetes mellitus. Rheumatol Int 2003; 23(4):171-173.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). SUBJECTS. The study included 100 consecutive unselected patients with DM attending our diabetes clinic. Patients were divided into two groups: 45 patients with type 1 diabetes and 55 patients with type 2 diabetes. A group of 50 healthy hospital staff members served as controls. The FM was diagnosed according to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria. Counts of 18 tender points were performed by thumb palpation and assessed by dolorimeter. Routine biochemical tests and levels of HbA(1c) were recorded in each patient. RESULTS. The main outcome measure was the association of FM with DM. Fibromyalgia was diagnosed in 17 patients (17%) with DM and in only one (2%) healthy control ( P=0.008). No differences in patients were noted in the prevalence of FM between type 1 and type 2 diabetes (18.5% vs 15.5%, respectively). Patients with both FM and DM had significantly higher levels of HbA(1c) than DM patients without FM (9.2+/-1.1% vs 6.4+/-1.5%) ( P<0.05). Similarly, the numbers of tender points, pain scores, and the prevalence of sleep disturbances, fatigue, and headaches were higher in this group of patients. A significant correlation was observed between the numbers of tender points and HbA(1c) levels in the DM patients with FM ( r=0.72, P=0.027). CONCLUSION. Fibromyalgia is a common finding in patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes, and its prevalence could be related to control of the disease. As with other diabetes complications, FM might be prevented by improved control of blood glucose levels.

  (5)   Wolak T, Weitzman S, Harman-Boehm I, Friger M, Sukenik S. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Harefuah 2001; 140(11):1006-9, 1120, 1119.
Abstract: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of fibromyalgia and other pain characteristics among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed 137 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a control group of 139 patients matched for age and sex that do not suffer from diabetes mellitus. We examined 9 of 18 typical tender points and 4 control points with a dolorimeter. There was no difference in the prevalence of fibromyalgia among men in both groups. However, diabetic men had more tender points than men in the control group and their threshold for pain at the corresponding tender points was significantly lower compared to that of the men in the control group. The diabetic men also reported more pain than patients in the control group. Diabetic women, on the other hand, had a significantly higher prevalence of fibromyalgia than women in the control group: 23.3% versus 10.6% respectively (p = 0.043). There was no significant difference in the number of tender points and the pain threshold in the two groups of women. Diabetic women reported more pain than the women in the control group. In both diabetic men and women the number of tender points and dolorimeter count directly correlated with the duration of diabetes.
 

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